The default rule is that each share of stock gets one vote unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. A stockholder may vote in person, or may delegate authority to another person to vote as their proxy.
You will often hear reference to a "proxy statement". The proxy statement is a federally-mandated information disclosure filed on Form 14A that publicly-traded corporations are required to send to stockholders in advance of a stockholder meeting. The proxy statement includes all the material information required by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that stockholders will need in advance of their votes for directors and any other business put to the stockholders for a vote. The proxy statement will also include a stockholder ballot.
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