Mary Ellen O’Connell, “Historical Development and Legal Basis,” in The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law, Third Edition, ed. Fleck (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 41–42 (sections 148–151).
Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda), ICJ, Judgment, ICJ Reports 2005, December 19, 2005, paras. 181–194, 205–221; Separate Opinion of Judge Simma, paras. 16–41
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, August 12, 1949
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), June 8, 1977