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An Introduction to the Law of Corporations: Cases and Materials, Fall 2017

Facebook, Inc. Restated Certificate of Incorporation

Headnote

Below you will find the text of Facebook's certificate of incorporation as filed with the SEC on May 22, 2012.

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Facebook, Inc.

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RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

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Facebook, Inc., a Delaware corporation, hereby certifies as follows.

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1. The name of the corporation is Facebook, Inc. The date of filing its original Certificate of Incorporation with the Secretary of State was July 29, 2004, under the name TheFacebook, Inc.

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2.  The Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the corporation attached hereto as Exhibit A, which is incorporated herein by this reference, and which restates, integrates and further amends the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation of this corporation as heretofore amended and/or restated, has been duly adopted by the corporation’s Board of Directors and by the stockholders in accordance with Sections 242 and 245 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, with the approval of the corporation’s stockholders having been given by written consent without a meeting in accordance with Section 228 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, this corporation has caused this Restated Certificate of Incorporation to be signed by its duly authorized officer and the foregoing facts stated herein are true and correct.

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Dated: May 22, 2012

 

 

 

FACEBOOK, INC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By:

  

/s/ Mark Zuckerberg

 

 

 

 

Name:

 

Mark Zuckerberg

 

 

 

 

Title:

 

Chief Executive Officer

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******  ****** ******

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FACEBOOK, INC.

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RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

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ARTICLE I: NAME

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The name of the corporation is Facebook, Inc.

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ARTICLE II: AGENT FOR SERVICE OF PROCESS

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The address of the corporation’s registered office in the State of Delaware is 2711 Centerville Road, Suite 400, Wilmington, County of New Castle, 19808. The name of the registered agent of the corporation at that address is Corporation Service Company.

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ARTICLE III: PURPOSE

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The purpose of the corporation is to engage in any lawful act or activity for which corporations may be organized under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (“General Corporation Law”).

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ARTICLE IV: AUTHORIZED STOCK

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1. Total Authorized.

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The total number of shares of all classes of capital stock that the corporation has authority to issue is 9,241,000,000 shares, consisting of: 5,000,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock, $0.000006 par value per share (“Class A Common Stock”), 4,141,000,000 shares of Class B Common Stock, $0.000006 par value per share (“Class B Common Stock” and together with the Class A Common Stock, the “Common Stock”) and 100,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, $0.000006 par value per share. The number of authorized shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock may be increased or decreased (but not below the number of shares thereof then outstanding) by the affirmative vote of the holders of capital stock representing a majority of the voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote thereon, irrespective of the provisions of Section 242(b)(2) of the General Corporation Law.

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2. Designation of Additional Shares

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2.1 The Board of Directors is authorized, subject to any limitations prescribed by the laws of the State of Delaware, by resolution or resolutions, to provide for the issuance of the shares of Preferred Stock in one or more series, and, by filing a certificate of designation pursuant to the applicable law of the State of Delaware (“Certificate of Designation”), to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, to fix the designation, powers (including voting powers), preferences and relative, participating, optional or other rights, if any, of the shares of each such series and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, and to increase (but not above the total number of authorized shares of such class) or decrease (but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding) the number of shares of any such series. The number of authorized shares of Preferred Stock may also be increased or decreased (but not below the number of shares thereof then outstanding) by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote thereon, without a separate vote of the holders of the Preferred Stock or any series thereof, irrespective of the provisions of Section 242(b)(2) of the General Corporation Law, unless a vote of any such holders is required pursuant to the terms of any Certificate of Designation designating a series of Preferred Stock.

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2.2 Except as otherwise expressly provided in any Certificate of Designation designating any series of Preferred Stock pursuant to the foregoing provisions of this ARTICLE IV, any new series of Preferred Stock may be designated, fixed and determined as provided herein by the Board of Directors without approval of the holders of Common Stock or the holders of Preferred Stock, or any series thereof, and any such new series may have powers, preferences and rights, including, without limitation, voting powers, dividend rights, liquidation rights, redemption rights and conversion rights, senior to, junior to or pari passu with the rights of the Common Stock, the Preferred Stock, or any future class or series of Preferred Stock or Common Stock.

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3. Rights of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock.

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3.1 Equal Status. Except as otherwise provided in this Restated Certificate of Incorporation or required by applicable law, shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock shall have the same rights and powers, rank equally (including as to dividends and distributions, and upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the corporation), share ratably and be identical in all respects and as to all matters.

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3.2 Voting Rights. Except as otherwise expressly provided by this Restated Certificate of Incorporation or as provided by law, the holders of shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock shall (a) at all times vote together as a single class on all matters (including the election of directors) submitted to a vote or for the consent (if action by written consent of the stockholders is permitted at such time under this Restated Certificate of Incorporation) of the stockholders of the corporation, (b) be entitled to notice of any stockholders’ meeting in accordance with the Bylaws of the corporation and (c) be entitled to vote upon such matters and in such manner as may be provided by applicable law. Except as otherwise expressly provided herein or required by applicable law, each holder of Class A Common Stock shall have the right to one (1) vote per share of Class A Common Stock held of record by such holder and each holder of Class B Common Stock shall have the right to ten (10) votes per share of Class B Common Stock held of record by such holder.

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3.3 Dividend and Distribution Rights. Shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock shall be treated equally, identically and ratably, on a per share basis, with respect to any dividends or distributions as may be declared and paid from time to time by the Board of Directors out of any assets of the corporation legally available therefor; provided, however, that in the event a dividend is paid in the form of shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock (or rights to acquire such shares), then holders of Class A Common Stock shall receive shares of Class A Common Stock (or rights to acquire such shares, as the case may be) and holders of Class B Common Stock shall receive shares of Class B Common Stock (or rights to acquire such shares, as the case may be), with holders of shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock receiving, on a per share basis, an identical number of shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock, as applicable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Board of Directors may pay or make a disparate dividend or distribution per share of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock (whether in the amount of such dividend or distribution payable per share, the form in which such dividend or distribution is payable, the timing of the payment, or otherwise) if such disparate dividend or distribution is approved in advance by the affirmative vote (or written consent if action by written consent of stockholders is permitted at such time under this Restated Certificate of Incorporation) of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, each voting separately as a class.

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3.4 Subdivisions, Combinations or Reclassifications. Shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock may not be subdivided, combined or reclassified unless the shares of the other class are concurrently therewith proportionately subdivided, combined or reclassified in a manner that maintains the same proportionate equity ownership between the holders of the outstanding Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock on the record date for such subdivision, combination or reclassification; provided, however, that shares of one such class may be subdivided, combined or reclassified in a different or disproportionate manner if such subdivision, combination or reclassification is approved in advance by the affirmative vote (or written consent if action by written consent of stockholders is permitted at such time under this Restated Certificate of Incorporation) of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, each voting separately as a class.

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3.5 Liquidation, Dissolution or Winding Up. Subject to the preferential or other rights of any holders of Preferred Stock then outstanding, upon the dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary, holders of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock will be entitled to receive ratably all assets of the corporation available for distribution to its stockholders unless disparate or different treatment of the shares of each such class with respect to distributions upon any such liquidation, dissolution or winding up is approved in advance by the affirmative vote (or written consent if action by written consent of stockholders is permitted at such time under this Restated Certificate of Incorporation) of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, each voting separately as a class.

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3.6 Merger or Consolidation. In the case of any distribution or payment in respect of the shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock upon the consolidation or merger of the Corporation with or into any other entity, or in the case of any other transaction having an effect on stockholders substantially similar to that resulting from a consolidation or merger, such distribution or payment shall be made ratably on a per share basis among the holders of the Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock as a single class; provided, however, that shares of one such class may receive different or disproportionate distributions or payments in connection with such merger, consolidation or other transaction if (i) the only difference in the per share distribution to the holders of the Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock is that any securities distributed to the holder of a share Class B Common Stock have ten times the voting power of any securities distributed to the holder of a share of Class A Common Stock, or (ii) such merger, consolidation or other transaction is approved by the affirmative vote (or written consent if action by written consent of stockholders is permitted at such time under this Restated Certificate of Incorporation) of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, each voting separately as a class.

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3.7 Change of Control Class B Vote. Until the first date on which the outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock represent less than thirty-five percent (35%) of the total voting power of the then outstanding shares of the corporation then entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, the corporation shall not consummate a Change in Control Transaction (as defined in Section 4 of this ARTICLE IV) without first obtaining the affirmative vote (or written consent if action by written consent of stockholders is permitted at such time under this Restated Certificate of Incorporation) of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock, voting as a separate class, in addition to any other vote required by applicable law, this Restated Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws.

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3.8 Conversion of Class B Common Stock.

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(a) Voluntary Conversion. Each share of Class B Common Stock shall be convertible into one (1) fully paid and nonassessable share of Class A Common Stock at the option of the holder thereof at any time upon written notice to the corporation. Before any holder of Class B Common Stock shall be entitled to voluntarily convert any shares of such Class B Common Stock, such holder shall surrender the certificate or certificates therefor (if any), duly endorsed, at the principal corporate office of the corporation or of any transfer agent for the Class B Common Stock, and shall give written notice to the corporation at its principal corporate office, of the election to convert the same and shall state therein the name or names (i) in which the certificate or certificates representing the shares of Class A Common Stock into which the shares of Class B Common Stock are so converted are to be issued if such shares are certificated or (ii) in which such shares are to be registered in book entry if such shares are uncertificated. The corporation shall, as soon as practicable thereafter, issue and deliver at such office to such holder of Class B Common Stock, or to the nominee or nominees of such holder, a certificate or certificates representing the number of shares of Class A Common Stock to which such holder shall be entitled as aforesaid (if such shares are certificated) or, if such shares are uncertificated, register such shares in book-entry form. Such conversion shall be deemed to have been made immediately prior to the close of business on the date of such surrender of the shares of Class B Common Stock to be converted following or contemporaneously with the written notice of such holder’s election to convert required by this Section 3.8(a), and the person or persons entitled to receive the shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon such conversion shall be treated for all purposes as the record holder or holders of such shares of Class A Common Stock as of such date. Each share of Class B Common Stock that is converted pursuant to this Section 3.8(a) shall be retired by the corporation and shall not be available for reissuance.

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(b) Automatic Conversion. (i) Each share of Class B Common Stock shall be automatically, without further action by the holder thereof, converted into one (1) fully paid and nonassessable share of Class A Common Stock, upon the occurrence of a Transfer (as defined in Section 4 of this ARTICLE IV), other than a Permitted Transfer (as defined in Section of this ARTICLE IV), of such share of Class B Common Stock and (ii) all shares of Class B Common Stock shall be automatically, without further action by any holder thereof, converted into an identical number of shares of Class A Common Stock at such date and time, or the occurrence of an event, specified by the affirmative vote (or written consent if action by written consent of stockholders is permitted at such time under this Restated Certificate of Incorporation) of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares Class B Common Stock, voting as a separate class (the occurrence of an event described in clause (i) or (ii) of this Section 3.8(b), a “Conversion Event”). Each outstanding stock certificate that, immediately prior to a Conversion Event, represented one or more shares of Class B Common Stock subject to such Conversion Event shall, upon such Conversion Event, be deemed to represent an equal number of shares of Class A Common Stock, without the need for surrender or exchange thereof. The corporation shall, upon the request of any holder whose shares of Class B Common Stock have been converted into shares of Class A Common Stock as a result of a Conversion Event and upon surrender by such holder to the corporation of the outstanding certificate(s) formerly representing such holder’s shares of Class B Common Stock (if any), issue and deliver to such holder certificate(s) representing the shares of Class A Common Stock into which such holder’s shares of Class B Common Stock were converted as a result of such Conversion Event (if such shares are certificated) or, if such shares are uncertificated, register such shares in book-entry form. Each share of Class B Common Stock that is converted pursuant to this Section 3.8(b) of ARTICLE IV shall thereupon be retired by the corporation and shall not be available for reissuance.

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(c) The corporation may, from time to time, establish such policies and procedures, not in violation of applicable law or the other provisions of this Restated Certificate, relating to the conversion of the Class B Common Stock into Class A Common Stock, as it may deem necessary or advisable in connection therewith. If the corporation has reason to believe that a Transfer giving rise to a conversion of shares of Class B Common Stock into Class A Common Stock has occurred but has not theretofore been reflected on the books of the corporation, the corporation may request that the holder of such shares furnish affidavits or other evidence to the corporation as the corporation deems necessary to determine whether a conversion of shares of Class B Common Stock to Class A Common Stock has occurred, and if such holder does not within ten (10) days after the date of such request furnish sufficient evidence to the corporation (in the manner provided in the request) to enable the corporation to determine that no such conversion has occurred, any such shares of Class B Common Stock, to the extent not previously converted, shall be automatically converted into shares of Class A Common Stock and the same shall thereupon be registered on the books and records of the corporation. In connection with any action of stockholders taken at a meeting or by written consent (if action by written consent of stockholders is permitted at such time under this Restated Certificate of Incorporation), the stock ledger of the corporation shall be presumptive evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders or in connection with any such written consent and the class or classes or series of shares held by each such stockholder and the number of shares of each class or classes or series held by such stockholder.

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3.9 Reservation of Stock. The corporation shall at all times reserve and keep available out of its authorized but unissued shares of Class A Common Stock, solely for the purpose of effecting the conversion of the shares of Class B Common Stock, such number of shares of Class A Common Stock as shall from time to time be sufficient to effect the conversion of all outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock into shares of Class A Common Stock.

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3.10 Protective Provision. The corporation shall not, whether by merger, consolidation or otherwise, amend, alter, repeal or waive Sections 3 or 4 of this Article IV (or adopt any provision inconsistent therewith), without first obtaining the affirmative vote (or written consent if action by written consent of stockholders is permitted at such time under this Restated Certificate of Incorporation) of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock, voting as a separate class, in addition to any other vote required by applicable law, this Restated Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws.

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4. Definitions. For purposes of this Restated Certificate of Incorporation:

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4.1 “Change in Control Transaction” means the occurrence of any of the following events:

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(a) the sale, lease, exchange, encumbrance or other disposition (other than licenses that do not constitute an effective disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the corporation and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, and the grant of security interests in the ordinary course of business) by the corporation of all or substantially all of the corporation’s assets; or

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(b) the merger or consolidation of the corporation with or into any other entity, other than a merger or consolidation that would result in the Class B Common Stock of the corporation outstanding immediately prior thereto continuing to represent (either by remaining outstanding or by being converted into voting securities of the surviving entity or its sole parent entity) more than fifty percent (50%) of the total voting power represented by the voting securities of the corporation or such surviving entity or its sole parent entity outstanding immediately after such merger or consolidation.

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4.2 “Charitable Trust” means a trust that is exempt from taxation under Section 501(c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (or any successor provision thereto) (whether a determination letter with respect to such exemption is issued before, at or after the Covered Security Date), and further includes any successor entity that is exempt from taxation under Section 501(c)(3) (or any successor provision thereto) upon a conversion of, or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of, a Charitable Trust to such successor entity (whether a determination letter with respect to such successor’s exemption is issued before, at or after the conversion date).

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4.3 “Covered Security Date” means May 14, 2012

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4.4 “Family Member” shall mean with respect to any natural person who is a Qualified Stockholder, the spouse, parents, grandparents, lineal descendents, siblings and lineal descendants of siblings of such Qualified Stockholder. Lineal descendants shall include adopted persons, but only so long as they are adopted during minority.

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4.5 “Qualified Stockholder” shall mean (a) the registered holder of a share of Class B Common Stock as of the Covered Security Date; (b) the initial registered holder of any shares of Class B Common Stock that are originally issued by the corporation after the Covered Security Date pursuant to the exercise or conversion of options or warrants or settlement of restricted stock units (RSUs) that, in each case, are outstanding as of the Covered Security Date; (c) each natural person who Transferred shares of or equity awards for Class B Common Stock (including any option or warrant exercisable or convertible into or any RSU that can be settled in shares of Class B Common Stock) to a Permitted Entity that is or becomes a Qualified Stockholder pursuant to subclauses (a) or (b) of this Section 4.5; and (d) a Permitted Transferee.

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4.6 “Parent” of an entity shall mean any entity that directly or indirectly owns or controls a majority of the voting power of the voting securities of such entity.

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4.7 “Permitted Entity” shall mean with respect to a Qualified Stockholder (a) a Permitted Trust solely for the benefit of (i) such Qualified Stockholder, (ii) one or more Family Members of such Qualified Stockholder, (iii) any other Permitted Entity of such Qualified Stockholder and/or (iv) any entity that is described in Sections 501(c)(3), 170(b)(1)(A), 170(c), 2055(a) or 2522(a) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (or any successor provision thereto), (b) any general partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, corporation or other entity exclusively owned by (i) such Qualified Stockholder, (ii) one or more Family Members of such Qualified Stockholder and/or (iii) any other Permitted Entity of such Qualified Stockholder, (c) any Charitable Trust created by a Qualified Stockholder, which Charitable Trust was (x) validly created and (y) a registered holder of shares of capital stock of the corporation, in each case prior to the Covered Security Date (whether or not it continuously holds such shares of capital stock or any other shares of capital stock of the corporation at all times before or after the Covered Security Date), (d) the personal representative of the estate of a Qualified Stockholder upon the death of such Qualified Stockholder solely to the extent the executor is acting in the capacity as personal representative of such estate, (e) a revocable living trust, which revocable living trust is itself both a Permitted Trust and a Qualified Stockholder, during the lifetime of the natural person grantor of such trust, or (f) a revocable living trust, which revocable living trust is itself both a Permitted Trust and a Qualified Stockholder, following the death of the natural person grantor of such trust, solely to the extent that such shares are held in such trust pending distribution to the beneficiaries designated in such trust. Except as explicitly provided for herein, a Permitted Entity of a Qualified Stockholder shall not cease to be a Permitted Entity of that Qualified Stockholder solely by reason of the death of that Qualified Stockholder.

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4.8 “Permitted Transfer” shall mean, and be restricted to, any Transfer of a share of Class B Common Stock:

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(a) by a Qualified Stockholder (or the estate of a deceased Qualified Stockholder) to (i) one or more Family Members of such Qualified Stockholder, or (ii) any Permitted Entity of such Qualified Stockholder; or (iii) to such Qualified Stockholder’s revocable living trust, which revocable living trust is itself both a Permitted Trust and a Qualified Stockholder;

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(b) by a Permitted Entity of a Qualified Stockholder to (i) such Qualified Stockholder or one or more Family Members of such Qualified Stockholder, or (ii) any other Permitted Entity of such Qualified Stockholder; or 

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(c) by a Qualified Stockholder that is a natural person or revocable living trust to an entity that is exempt from taxation under Section 501(c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (or any successor provision thereto) (a “501(c)(3) Organization”) or an entity that is exempt from taxation under Section 501(c)(3) and described in Section 509(a)(3) of United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (or any successor provision thereto) (a “Supporting Organization”), as well as any Transfer by a 501(c)(3) Organization to a Supporting Organization of which such 501(c)(3) Organization (x) is a supported organization (within the meaning of Section 509(f)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (or any successor provision thereto)), and (y) has the power to appoint a majority of the board of directors, provided that such 501(c)(3) Organization or such Supporting Organization irrevocably elects, no later than the time such share of Class B Common Stock is Transferred to it, that such share of Class B Common Stock shall automatically be converted into Class A Common Stock upon the death of such Qualified Stockholder or the natural person grantor of such Qualified Stockholder.

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4.9 “Permitted Transferee” shall mean a transferee of shares of Class B Common Stock received in a Transfer that constitutes a Permitted Transfer.

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4.10 “Permitted Trust” shall mean a bona fide trust where each trustee is (a) a Qualified Stockholder, (b) a Family Member of a Qualified Stockholder, (c) a professional in the business of providing trustee services, including private professional fiduciaries, trust companies and bank trust departments, or (d) solely in the case of any such trust established by a natural person grantor prior to the Covered Security Date, any other bona fide trustee.

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4.11 “Transfer” of a share of Class B Common Stock shall mean, directly or indirectly, any sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, hypothecation or other transfer or disposition of such share or any legal or beneficial interest in such share, whether or not for value and whether voluntary or involuntary or by operation of law (including by merger, consolidation or otherwise), including, without limitation, a transfer of a share of Class B Common Stock to a broker or other nominee (regardless of whether there is a corresponding change in beneficial ownership), or the transfer of, or entering into a binding agreement with respect to, Voting Control (as defined below) over such share by proxy or otherwise. A “Transfer” shall also be deemed to have occurred with respect to a share of Class B Common Stock beneficially held by (i) an entity that is a Permitted Entity, if there occurs any act or circumstance that causes such entity to no longer be a Permitted Entity or (ii) an entity that is a Qualified Stockholder, if there occurs a Transfer on a cumulative basis, from and after the Covered Security Date, of a majority of the voting power of the voting securities of such entity or any direct or indirect Parent of such entity, other than a Transfer to parties that are, as of the Covered Security Date, holders of voting securities of any such entity or Parent of such entity. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the following shall not be considered a “Transfer” within the meaning of this ARTICLE IV:

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(a) the granting of a revocable proxy to officers or directors of the corporation at the request of the Board of Directors in connection with actions to be taken at an annual or special meeting of stockholders or in connection with any action by written consent of the stockholders solicited by the Board of Directors (if action by written consent of stockholders is permitted at such time under this Restated Certificate of Incorporation); 

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(b) entering into a voting trust, agreement or arrangement (with or without granting a proxy) solely with stockholders who are holders of Class B Common Stock, which voting trust, agreement or arrangement (i) is disclosed either in a Schedule 13D filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission or in writing to the Secretary of the corporation, (ii) either has a term not exceeding one (1) year or is terminable by the holder of the shares subject thereto at any time and (iii) does not involve any payment of cash, securities, property or other consideration to the holder of the shares subject thereto other than the mutual promise to vote shares in a designated manner;

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(c) the pledge of shares of Class B Common Stock by a stockholder that creates a mere security interest in such shares pursuant to a bona fide loan or indebtedness transaction for so long as such stockholder continues to exercise Voting Control over such pledged shares; provided, however, that a foreclosure on such shares or other similar action by the pledgee shall constitute a “Transfer” unless such foreclosure or similar action qualifies as a “Permitted Transfer” at such time; or

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(d) any change in the trustees or the person(s) and/or entity(ies) having or exercising Voting Control over shares of Class B Common Stock (i) of a Charitable Trust that qualifies as a Permitted Entity pursuant to ARTICLE IV, Section 4.7 above, or (ii) of a Permitted Entity provided that following such change such Permitted Entity continues to be a Permitted Entity pursuant to ARTICLE IV, Section 4.7 above.

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4.12 “Voting Control” shall mean, with respect to a share of Class B Common Stock, the power (whether exclusive or shared) to vote or direct the voting of such share by proxy, voting agreement or otherwise.

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4.13 “Voting Threshold Date” shall mean 5:00 p.m. (Eastern Time) on the first day falling on or after the date on which the outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock represent less than a majority of the total voting power of the then outstanding shares of the corporation then entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.

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ARTICLE V: AMENDMENT OF BYLAWS

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The Board of Directors of the corporation shall have the power to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the corporation. Any adoption, amendment or repeal of the Bylaws of the corporation by the Board of Directors shall require the approval of a majority of the Whole Board. For purposes of this Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the term “Whole Board” shall mean the total number of authorized directors whether or not there exist any vacancies in previously authorized directorships. The stockholders shall also have power to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the corporation. Prior to the Voting Threshold Date, in addition to any vote of the holders of any class or series of stock of the corporation required by applicable law or by this Restated Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock issued pursuant to a Certificate of Designation), such adoption, amendment or repeal of the Bylaws of the corporation by the stockholders shall require the affirmative vote of a majority in voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class. From and after the Voting Threshold Date, in addition to any vote of the holders of any class or series of stock of the corporation required by applicable law or by this Restated Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock issued pursuant to a Certificate of Designation), such adoption, amendment or repeal of the Bylaws of the corporation by the stockholders shall require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

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ARTICLE VI: MATTERS RELATING TO THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS

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1. Director Powers. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors. In addition to the powers and authority expressly conferred upon them by statute or by this Restated Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws of the corporation, the directors are hereby empowered to exercise all such powers and do all such acts and things as may be exercised or done by the corporation.

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2. Number of Directors. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, the number of directors shall be fixed from time to time exclusively by resolution adopted by a majority of the Whole Board.

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3. Classified Board. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, immediately following the Voting Threshold Date, the directors shall be divided, with respect to the time for which they severally hold office, into three classes designated as Class I, Class II and Class III, respectively (the “Classified Board”). The Board of Directors may assign members of the Board of Directors in office immediately prior to the Classified Board becoming effective to the several classes of the Classified Board, which assignments shall become effective at the same time the Classified Board becomes effective. Directors shall be assigned to each class in accordance with a resolution or resolutions adopted by a majority of the Board of Directors, with the number of directors in each class to be divided as nearly equal as reasonably possible. The initial term of office of the Class I directors shall expire at the corporation’s first annual meeting of stockholders following the date on which the Classified Board becomes effective, the initial term of office of the Class II directors shall expire at the corporation’s second annual meeting of stockholders following the date on which the Classified Board becomes effective, and the initial term of office of the Class III directors shall expire at the corporation’s third annual meeting of stockholders following the date on which the Classified Board becomes effective. At each annual meeting of stockholders following the date on which the Classified Board becomes effective, directors elected to succeed those directors of the class whose terms then expire shall be elected for a term of office to expire at the third succeeding annual meeting of stockholders after their election.

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4. Term and Removal. Each director shall hold office until such director’s successor is elected and qualified, or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal. Any director may resign at any time upon notice to the corporation given in writing or by any electronic transmission permitted in the corporation’s Bylaws or in accordance with applicable law. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock with respect to directors elected thereby, from and after the effectiveness of the Classified Board, no director may be removed except for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of the then-outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation then entitled to vote at an election of directors voting together as a single class. No decrease in the number of directors constituting the Whole Board shall shorten the term of any incumbent director. 

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5. Board Vacancies. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors under specified circumstances, from and after the effectiveness of the Classified Board, any vacancy occurring in the Board of Directors for any cause, and any newly created directorship resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors, shall (unless (a) the Board of Directors determines by resolution that any such vacancy or newly created directorship shall be filled by the stockholders or (b) otherwise required by applicable law) be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, even if less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director, and not by the stockholders. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders at which the term of office of the class to which the director has been elected expires or until such director’s successor shall have been duly elected and qualified.

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6. Vote by Ballot. Election of directors need not be by written ballot.

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ARTICLE VII: DIRECTOR LIABILITY; INDEMNIFICATION

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1. Limitation of Liability. To the fullest extent permitted by law, no director of the corporation shall be personally liable to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director. Without limiting the effect of the preceding sentence, if the General Corporation Law is hereafter amended to authorize the further elimination or limitation of the liability of a director, then the liability of a director of the corporation shall be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by the General Corporation Law, as so amended.

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2. Indemnification. The corporation shall indemnify to the fullest extent permitted by law any person made or threatened to be made a party to an action or proceeding, whether criminal, civil, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he, his testator or intestate is or was a director or officer of the corporation or any predecessor of the Corporation, or serves or served at any other enterprise as a director or officer at the request of the corporation or any predecessor to the corporation.

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3. Change in Rights. Neither any amendment nor repeal of this ARTICLE VII, nor the adoption of any provision of this Restated Certificate of Incorporation inconsistent with this ARTICLE VII, shall eliminate or reduce the effect of this Article VII in respect of any matter occurring, or any action or proceeding accruing or arising or that, but for this Article VII, would accrue or arise, prior to such amendment, repeal or adoption of an inconsistent provision.

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ARTICLE VIII: MATTERS RELATING TO STOCKHOLDERS

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1. No Action by Written Consent of Stockholders. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock with respect to actions by the holders of shares of such series, from and after the Voting Threshold Date, (a) no action shall be taken by the stockholders of the corporation except at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and (b) no action shall be taken by the stockholders of the corporation by written consent.

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2. Special Meeting of Stockholders. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock with respect to actions by the holders of shares of such series, special meetings of the stockholders of the corporation may be called only by the Board of Directors acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Whole Board, the Chief Executive Officer, President or the Chairperson of the Board, and may not be called by any other person or persons. Business transacted at special meetings of stockholders shall be confined to the purpose or purposes stated in the notice of meeting.

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3. Advance Notice of Stockholder Nominations. Advance notice of stockholder nominations for the election of directors of the corporation and of business to be brought by stockholders before any meeting of stockholders of the corporation shall be given in the manner provided in the Bylaws of the corporation.

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4. Business Combinations. The corporation elects not to be governed by Section 203 of the General Corporation Law.

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ARTICLE IX: CHOICE OF FORUM

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Unless the corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the corporation, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by, or other wrongdoing by, any director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation to the corporation or the corporation’s stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law or the corporation’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws, (4) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of the corporation’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws or (5) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in each such case subject to said Court of Chancery having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants therein. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this ARTICLE IX.

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ARTICLE X: AMENDMENT OF RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

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The corporation reserves the right to amend or repeal any provision contained in this Restated Certificate of Incorporation in the manner prescribed by the laws of the State of Delaware and all rights conferred upon stockholders are granted subject to this reservation; provided, however, that, notwithstanding any other provision of this Restated Certificate of Incorporation or any provision of applicable law that might otherwise permit a lesser vote or no vote, but in addition to any vote of the holders of any class or series of the capital stock of this corporation required by applicable law or by this Restated Certificate of Incorporation, from and after the Voting Threshold Date, any amendment to or repeal of this ARTICLE X or ARTICLE V, ARTICLE VI, ARTICLE VII, ARTICLE VIII or ARTICLE IX of this Restated Certificate of Incorporation (or the adoption of any provision inconsistent therewith) shall require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the voting power of the then outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

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